Informace ze světa Internetu hlavně o včelách a včelařích, a česky

"Měl ho tam" ..... mor včelího plodu se objevil v okrese

11. července 2006 v 8:20 | ovcsvpardubice |  Nemoci včel - Veterinární záležitosti - léčení
Vzpomněl jsem si na klasickou scénu z filmu Jak básníkům chutná život. "Natočili mu EKG a co byste řekl? Měl ho tam - infarkt"

Začátkem roku se objevily zprávy o výskytu moru včelího plodu na jižní moravě. Pak se mi dostaly do rukou zprávy o mnoha ohniscích moru královéhradeckém kraji, Dvůr Králové, Jičín atd. Viz také článek ve Včelařských novinách (Aktuální výskyty moru včelího plodu). Pardubický okres zažil naposledy mor v roce 2003 jižně od Přelouče v Krasnicích. Po vyšetření včelstev v ochranném pásmu se tam další mor neobjevil. Až opět letos a hned na 2 místech - v Býšti (Býšť 123)

a ve Chvaleticích (Telčice). Pamatuji si, že nedaleko Chvaletic, přes Labe, v Labské Chrčici byl mor asi před deseti lety a nedaleko Býště, v Bělečku a Hoděšovicích byl mor před 4 roky (?).
Letos je ale novinka v postupu veterinární správy. KVS nařídila odebrat vzorky spadu (měli) od všech včelstev v ochranném pásmu (5 km okruh) a vyšetřit je bakteriologicky na přítomnost spor moru. To je zásadní obrat proti minulosti, kdy se postupně fyzicky rozebíraly včelstva a hledaly se klinické příznaky. Nová metoda je mnohem citlivější a vytipuje podezřelá včelstva. Ta nemusí být nutně klinicky nemocná, ale při výskytu počtu spor 10 na 4, je otázkou času, kdy se ve včelstvu najde napadená buňka. Úroveň 10 na 2 nemusí znamenat, že včelstvo mor dostane. Imunitní systém včelstva si s takovou úrovní poradí.

Jak se mor šíří? Napadené včelstvo může bojovat s chorobou až 3 roky, než zpravidla po zimě padne definitivně. Celou tu dobu může šířit nákazu do širokého okolí, loupežemi oslabených včelstev, nebo zalétáváním rojů a následnou loupeží zásob.

Postup, který doporučuje SVS po objevení moru je zde
Naštěstí stát postiženému včelaři vyplatí náhradu a tak po likvidaci včelstev a úlů, včetně inventáře, může začít včelař znovu s chovem.

Jak při běžné prohlídce může včelař objevit mor? Důležité je dobře vědět, jak má vypadat plod u zdravého včelstva. Jakmile se zjistí nějaká odchylka, zejména objeví-li se mezerovitý plod, je potřeba zvýšit ostražitost. Buňka s larvou, která je napadena bakterií Paenibacillus larvae, původcem moru včelího plodu, má propadlé víčko a v počátečním stádiu je v buňce klihovitá hmotá, která vytažená sirkou tvoří dlouhé vlákno. Průvodním jevem je odporný zápach, který je cítit i z úlu. V dalším stádiu hmota zaschne a v buňce se vytvoří takzvaný příškvar, který je vysoce infekční miliardami spor, jakýchsi semínek moru, které vyklíčí ve vhodné teplotě a vlhkosti. Tyto spory přežívají mnoho desítek let, nezničí je ani teplota 110 st.C, ani běžné dezinfekční prostředky. Nejúčinnější dezinfekce na kovové součásti je roztok 9 l vody, 0.5 kg NAOH a litr SAVO. Dřevěné věci se musí spálit, protože spory dokáží "zalézt" do struktury dřeva až do hloubky 3 mm.
Mor se nesmí léčit, jen likvidovat. Používání antibiotik je zakázáno. Vyplatí se chovat matky včelstev se zvýšeným čistícím instinktem. Takové chová Výzkumný ústav včelařský - pracoviště Zubří. Včelař by měl pečlivě a pravidelně prohlížet včelstva a nepodceňovat mezerovitost plodu, slabá včelstva rušit.
O tom, jestli je nákaza mor včelího plodu rozhoduje zásadně bakteriologický rozbor v pověřených laboratořích SVS, nebo Výzk. ústavu včelařského.
Jednoduchý orientační test na mor je na této stránce. Holstův mléčný test. Používá fakt, že sporující bacil Paenibacillus Larvae produkuje vysokou úroveň proteolytického enzymu. Do zkumavky obsahující 1-4 ml 1% roztoku sušeného mléka ve vodě se vloží podezřelá nakažená larva. Při teplotě 37 C se mléčná suspenze zprůhlední za 10-20 minut.
 

Buď první, kdo ohodnotí tento článek.

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